The Investigation Process Research Resource Site
A Pro Bono site with hundreds of resources for Investigation Investigators
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. . . .. . . . . . . . last updated 12/31/15


to advance the
State-of-the-Art of
investigations, through
investigation process

Research Resources:

Launched Aug 26 1996.


See List of Publications

Highlights of Ludwig Benner Jr Background

Elected Fellow, International Society of Air Safety Investigators, 1993

Elected Fellow, System Safety Society, 1981

Level A award "For your Leadership, Service and Support for the Hazardous Materials Response and Training Program" by the International Association of Fire Chief's's Hazardous Materials Committee at the International Hazardous Materials Response Teams Conference, June 2 2006

Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, Advisory Council, 1992-1995

Registered Professional Safety Engineer (Retired) (California No. 379)-since 1976
  • BS Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Institute of Technology 1950

  • College of Advanced Traffic, Diplomas in
       Transportation and Traffic Management
       Interstate Commerce Law

    Internet Experience:
    Creator and webmaster of pro bono Investigation Process Research Resource web site, devoted to promoting and disseminating results of investigation process research to advance the state of the art of investigations.

    Designed, created and operated pioneering dial-up based small corporate telecommunications network for work-flow and data distribution and dissemination, and adapted system to internet.

    Also engaged in continuing private investigation process internet research and investigation software development.

    Executive Experience:
    Board Member and Treasurer, private k-12 school
    Chairman, ISASI Board of Fellows
    Director of small software development company
    Board Chairman and Executive VP for advanced safety services corporation
    Director of small equipment leasing company
    Owner, private consulting firm
    Member, Virginia Metropolitan Areas Transportation Study Commission
    Director, Private Truck Council of America

    Management Experience highlights:

    Chief, Hazardous Materials Division, National Transportation Safety Board
    General Distribution Manager, Air Products and Chemicals
    Manager, Rail Transportation and Engineering Services, Distribution Dept, Air Products and Chemicals

    Technical Experience highlights:

    Designated Corresponding Member of European Safety and Reliability Data Association Project Group Dynamic Learning form Accident Investigations. (2009)
    Coauthor of regular column in Journal of System Safety
    Provided Litigation support, Ludwig Benner & Associates
    Editorial Board, Journal of Safety Research
    Technical Advisor to Emergency Film Group
    Principal Scientist, Events Analysis, Inc.
    General Engineer, National Transportation Safety Board
    Principal Consultant, EBS Management Consultants
    Transportation Engineer, Chemical Division, Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co.
    Software development advisor, Investigative Systems, Inc.

    Teaching Experience highlights

    -Field Instructor, University of Souther California, Institute of Safety and
         Systems Management (MORT, Investigation, trainer training and certification)
    - Adjunct Professor, Montgomery College, Rockville, MD (Hazardous Materials response)
    - Adjunct faculty, University of Souther California, MS in Safety Science, (Investigation)
    - NTSB Investigator training sessions (hazmat investigation)
    - Events Analysis, Inc. training courses (system safety, investigation)

    Supplemental detailed information:

    With Starline, I interpreted my investigation process research findings for software programmers by establishing software performance requirements, and providing feedback to programmers after testing the software. Currently engaged in accident investigation process research and investigation lessons learning system research.

    With LB&A, provided accident litigation support; advisor to investigation training film series and authored supporting guides including hazmat investigation guide; established investigation research interned site; prepared chemical emergency response system readiness maps; .critically reviewed Appendix E, Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Transportation Risk Assessment of PEIS for DOE Waste Management Plan. For Investigative Systems, Inc,, provided technical guidance for development of computer-supported implementation of advanced investigation technology to produce high quality investigations more efficiently, more quickly, and more consistently. For Events Analysis, Inc., which I co-founded, I continued to serve as a Director of this safety, environmental and fire protection services company until retirement.

    As Executive Vice President, Events Analysis, Inc. I was responsible for organizing company and creating company internet-based telecommunications systems for decentralized staff, delivery of advanced safety services and system safety technical management, research, development, engineering and training functions. Technical project experience included system safety program planning, development and implementation; analyses of electromagnetic pulsing and RF risks; hazardous materials risks management; emergency response decision making; hazardous materials regulatory needs analysis; safety program master plan for major high-energy research center; safety program support data base computerization; private pilot decision making research; aircraft fire research; industrial accident investigation program improvement projects; operational readiness analysis for research center health and safety program; highway explosives transport accident research, accident investigation and risk analysis course development and instruction for public and private sector clients; investigated accidents for government agency; performed risk analysis techniques manual; and accident litigation analysis projects. Other experience includes development of an audit program for large hazardous materials/hazardous waste management program; MES analysis of chemical emergency response at private nuclear facility; airport hazardous material overview course; technical quality control of numerous company projects including Army Corps of Engineers system safety facility analysis and manual development project, GSA fire and OSH inspection program, and EPA Lab survey projects; risk analyses for legal client; Minerals Management Service off-shore oil drilling and production accident investigator retraining project and investigation manual preparation; research of accident models and accident investigation methodologies for the Department of Labor. Co-chaired System Safety Society panel on Safety Technology, also served on A3C10 Hazardous Materials Committee of Transportation Research Board for 6 years; Member, Marine Board Panel on MMS OCS Inspection Alternatives

    Adjunct faculty member, and Field Instructor in the Practice of Safety, and course developer, Univ. of Southern California. Taught postgraduate degree accident investigation and safety courses, and developed and taught in-service short courses (hazardous materials, investigation, safety, risk analysis.) Researcher on project to evaluate long-term effectiveness of personnel training in MORT safety assurance program. Taught MORT, trained and certified MORT instructors.

    Division Chief, US. National Transportation Safety Board. Managed hazardous materials investigation and safety program for Board of 5 Presidential appointees.   Developed risk-based legislative objectives and statutory approaches in 1974 legislation, prepared  Board members' public testimony, and testified before the Congress  and other organizations on safety matters.  Served as member of Boards of Inquiry in public hearings conducted by Board.  Conducted and directed safety studies and accident investigations involving evaluations of program design and performance of Government agencies charged with the safe transportation of hazardous materials, and private sector safety programs; investigated and analyzed in depth aviation, rail, marine and highway accidents; analyzed decision and information flows, task demands and performance by participants in mishaps, analyzed NTSB and DOT accident data bases for special studies, drafted Member speeches, testimony. Investigations included major chemical, explosive, toxic, petroleum product and radioactive materials accidents; analysis of personnel procedures, performance, supervision; analyses of equipment, contents, loading, unloading, certification, regulation, exemptions, design assumptions, relief device performance, gas dispersion and component behavior prediction in accidents, among other issues. Developed over 100 safety recommendations.  Held security clearance.

    Senior Consultant, EBS Management Consultants, Inc. Performed market research, modal selection criteria research, statistical analyses of motor carrier performance, transport capacity measurement research.

    Adjunct Professor, Fire Science. Montgomery College. Developed hazardous materials course and two fire service course books which formed basis for subsequent Inter-industry Task force on  Safe Transportation of Hazardous Materials courses used to train over 135,000 firefighters. DECIDE framework adopted by FEMA for two FEMA hazardous materials  field courses, Virginia for training courses, AAR for emergency response guides.  Models still widely used for training emergency responders.

    General Distribution Manager, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Responsible for product  physical distribution functions.  Directed planning, development and operation of complex industrial distribution system,  for ongoing facilities, startups, acquisitions and rehabilitated facilities;  developed and implemented  distribution  cost/ performance  and safety  performance measurement and appraisal system; managed  production planning,  vehicle fleet, cor­porate aircraft operations,  passenger travel functions.  Member, new product safety and integrity  group, industry  committees.  Advisor to State of Pennsylvania Hazardous Substances Regulations Board. 

    Manager, Rail Transportation and Engineering Services, APCI. Developed new gas transport and distribution equipment design specifications, arranged for shop and equipment certification for transport equipment manufacture; investigated mishaps to develop performance improvement options; negotiated engineering design specifications for new gaseous and liquefied hydrogen transport equipment with regulatory agencies, ensured compliance with safety codes, standards and regulations.

    Transportation Engineer,  Chemical Div., Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co. Supervised chemical rail transport equipment development, engineering design, construction and maintenance; fleet equipment supply and operations; engineering tests and compliance with safety codes, standards and regulatory activities, and safety manual development.

    Other activities

    Advised US Coast Guard (on hazardous materials safety research), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (accident investigation), Atomic Energy Commission (accident investigation), Civil Aeronautics Board (hazardous materials safety litigation), Treasury Department (investigation), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (safety research) National Science Foundation (hazardous material emergency response research) and National Fire Academy (hazmat emergency response.)

    Awards and special achievements

    Invited to be Keynote Speaker at 2013 ESReDA Seminar.

    1972  Invited lecturer at Department of Energy Accident Investigation Conference, Williamsburg, Va.

    1973- 1981 Three Outstanding Performance awards and a Division Performance Commendation, NTSB

    1980  Accident investigation research paper selected by SAE for publication  in 1980 SAE Transactions

    1981 Invited participant in NAS's National Hazardous Materials Strategy Conference, Williamsburg, Va.

    1982 Invited lecturer at Nordic Council of Ministers Occupational Safety and Health conference in Helsinki, Finland

    1982  Elected member, National Academy of Sciences Transportation Research Board Committee A3C10 on Hazardous Materials

    1983  Invited lecturer at Swedish Work Environment Fund International Seminar on Occupational Accident Research, Saltsjobaden, Sweden

    1984  FEMA/National Fire Academy Award for contribution to fire loss reduction in hazardous material field.

    1987  Time/Loss Analysis method adopted by Dept. of Energy for evaluating emergency response performance

    1988  Member, National Research Council's Marine Board Panel on Alternatives for Inspection of OCS Operations

    1988  Invited Lecturer, Safety Program Management and Techniques, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

    1990 -1992  Elected Secretary of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators,

    1996  Established internet web site for the advancement of the state of the art of investigation.

    2006 Received International Association of Fire Chiefs Level A award (see above).

    2013 Elected Honorary member of ESReDA project Group

    Received International Association of Fire Chiefs Level A award (see above).


    Served on Editorial Board for Journal of Safety Research; also participated in System Safety Society, International Society of Air Safety Investigators, Society of Fire Protection Engineers

    Publications and papers:  Over 140 publications and papers on safety, system safety, risk analysis, accident investigation, hazardous materials and regulation (list available); co-authored "Investigating Accidents with STEP" (1987) Marcel Dekker, New York; authored 4 Investigation Guides published by Fire Protection Publications (1997-8); authored chapter for Handbook of Industrial Automation (in publications) 1998.


    °  Multilinear Events Sequences methodology for accident investigations adapted by Atomic Energy Commission and others as basis for their accident investigation management and analysis programs.

    °  Time/loss analysis method now used at NTSB and adopted by Department of Energy for its MORT program for evaluating emergency response management.

    °  D.E.C.I.D.E. hazardous materials emergency events analysis system and GEBMO model, adopted by National Fire Academy and others for hazardous materials training programs.

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